This information is supplied by Blades `N' Stuff, a knifemakers' supply outfit in Glendale, CA. We normally offer all of this in our sales catalog. A friend offered to put the useful parts on the net, for all to use without having to send the five dollars that we charge for the catalog.
We aren't here to provide a really neat and exciting web site with a whole bunch of trick stuff. This is pure text information and just about every bit of it is useful to the knifemaker.
Our specialty is working with new knifemakers. We sell pre-ground blades, and this information is specifically aimed at how to finish those blades. Much of it will be useful in other areas, and with your own projects. This is not a complete FAQ on knifemaking. Through the years, we have added bits and pieces of information to the catalog as we found recurring questions from customers. This is also not the last word on any subject mentioned. there are many other methods of doing just about everything mentioned.
If you find the pages interesting, and wish to get our catalog, we are at 1019 E. Palmer Ave, Glendale, CA 91205. Phone 818 956-5110, fax 818 956-5110. No exceptions to the $5.00 price.
We mention the names of a lot of knifemakers in this text. This does not imply endorsement by them. We are merely trying to give credit for a source of information.
WHAT DO I DO FIRST?
Sometimes a fellow will have a hard time getting started simply because he doesn't know a logical sequence to do the work. This doesn't mean he's not bright, but just that he probably hasn't had the company of a knife maker who took the time to explain how things work. There are also a heck of a lot of ways to arrive at a good knife, all of them correct.
Many of the publications have great how-to instruction, but tend to gloss over some of the very simplest steps. We offer this sequence or outline in an effort to make the routine more understandable.
And finally there are the voice preservation aspects of putting this all in print. I've had to explain these things over the phone so often that there are days when I feel like a record cut, being played over and over again.
1. Assemble the materials. Try to have everything on hand to complete the job when you get started. If you have to, hide the necessary tools from your brother in law, so they'll be there when you need them.
2. Fasten the blade firmly in a vise or clamp it to a heavy length of wood. Don't even think about trying to rub a blade with a hand sanding block while holding it in your other hand.
3. Hand rub 180 or 220 grit. This one is the essential step to get absolutely perfect if you want the rest of the rubbing to work right. Be sure to get the plunge cut perfectly clean with this grit and the others will be easy. Use a hard, narrow sanding block. A dremel type machine can be some help in cleaning up the plunge cuts and is essential on finger grooves, but you have to be very careful with it. If you want to use stones for the polishing, go back and read that section. Stubborn grinding marks may need a coarser grit to get rid of them. Use Cool Tool II to lubricate the sanding paper. It's a cutting fluid that will make the paper cut much better.
4. Hand rub 280 or 320 grit. Sanding with each new grit should be done in a different direction. Each grit should also be done around the entire blade before moving on, but you may leave the handle edges of a full tang knife to finish along with the handle material.
5. Hand rub 400 grit. Don't worry about getting the handle edges at this point. They'll get scuffed up when you shape the handle.
6. Hand rub 600 grit. You may want to rub with 600 several times, the last with the sanding motion lengthwise. Finer grits, up to 2000, are now available, and give a beautiful finish.
7. Measure and mark guard material for slot. Guards do not have to be wide, with 1" being considered the absolute maximum if one wants to fit it into a conventional sheath. If you're nervous about fitting a guard, remember, a heck of a lot of fine knives don't have any guard at all.
8. Center punch and drill holes in guard material for the guard slot. Do not hold the guard with your fingers while drilling!
9. File the guard slot to fit the blade.
10. Correct any loose fit on front of guard slot. Good trick for this is mentioned elsewhere.
11. Hand rub the front of the guard to fine finish. If you're using bolsters, polish the front edges.
12. If guard is to be pinned, locate and mark location of hole.
With bolsters, treat them as you would a slab handle.
13. Punch and drill guard pin hole.
14. File the bottom of guard slot until the pin fits through. The sides of the slot should already fit. When you try and pull off the partially filed guard, tight spots in the slot will appear shiny.
15. Countersink the pin hole. Same for bolsters.
16. Install and hammer pin(s) into place.
17. Clean and rough up the area to be soldered. Tape the blade to protect it. Use heat fence to protect the back end of the cutting edge if your steel will anneal easily, 440-C, 0-1, carbon steels, etc.
18. Solder on the guard. We do not recommend soldering bolsters.
19. Clean the solder joint immediately. Remove the tape on the blade and clean the blade thoroughly. Flux can get under the tape and etch the polished blade like crazy. Most flux will neutralize with a baking soda solution. Re-tape the blade to protect the finish.
20. Fit the front edges of the grip slabs to match back of guard. If you don't use a guard, get those front portions shaped, sanded and polished at this point. If the tang is tapered, the angle of tang and guard will not be a precise 90 degrees. Hint. A couple of added decorative spacers will disguise a lot of mis-alignment.
21. Clamp the left slab to the tang in its' proper position. If there are burrs around the handle holes, they'll make a poor fit. Scrape the inner surface of the handle slab to make it fit properly. We don't suggest filing the tang because it's normally too hard to file. (Tangs are virtually never a true flat.)
22. Using the tang as a template, drill the small diameter hole for the handle bolt. If it's smaller than the hole in the tang, don't worry, the epoxy will fill in. If there's a thong hole in the tang, and you want to use one, drill it now. Remember, a 1/4" thong liner needs a few thousandths of an inch clearance, so use an "F" size drill.
23. Repeat with the opposite side. If there is no guard, use the first half of the handle as the guide to drill the second. Be sure the front edges are aligned perfectly. If the grip does not fit well along the length of the tang, scrape a bit off the inside of the handle until the joint looks good. It's a lot easier to change the handle than the tang.
24. Fit and drill any liners, etc. Liners should be glued to the handle slabs before the handle is assembled.
25. Countersink the bolt holes to take the bolt heads. Remember which side of the grip is towards center! With pins, you can skip this step because pins are not hammered in place on handles. They're likely to split the handle material if expanded.
26. Epoxy the entire handle assembly into place, slabs, spacers liner and bolts or pins. Fast setting epoxy is not the one to be using here. Once the epoxy has stiffened, scrape excess off with a sliver of wood so you won't have to sand it away later. Many of the parts, like liners, etc., may be pre-assembled and glued to the slabs before the final assembly.
27. Grind or saw off the excess length of handle pins, bolts, thong liner and handle slabs when the epoxy has cured. Dip the handle often to keep the bolts or pins from getting so hot that they burn the epoxy or scorch brown rings around them on the handle material.
28. Roughly shape the handle and guard by filing, power sanding or grinding. Remember that the bolt head that you just ground on one side is going to be hot as hell when you turn it around and try to grind on the other side.
29. File and sand handle and guard to their final shape. An elegant guard is rarely over 3/4" wide. If you have a belt grinder, the handle may be shaped very quickly with a fresh 50 grit belt.
30. Polish handle and guard.
31. Remove tape from blade.
32. Touch up the blade polish. They always get a few nicks while you work.
33. Buff blade. Buffing earlier makes it impossible to solder so you wait till now.
34. Buff handle. Do not attempt to flare the thong hole liner by bending it like a piece of fuel tubing. Just bevel the inner edges to keep them from cutting the thong.
35. Make sheath.
36. Grind the cutting edge sharp.
37. Hone the cutting edge. You'll note that I don't mention buffing the edge to sharpen it. There is no way that a sharp blade should ever be put on a buffer.
38. Deliver the knife and collect enough to make three or four more. Share the profit with your wife, after all, she's had to put up with all the mess.
This is merely the briefest explanation of the basic knife making sequence. More detailed instruction and drawings can be found in other parts of the catalog.
The order of items may not suit your working habits. You may find much of it unnecessary if you are working on a very simple blade.
No matter how you choose to go at it, have a plan to follow and try not to get lost in the tiny details until they're necessary.
There are no perfect knives!
When you go into the shop, you must have eye protection above all else. Glasses should be considered the absolute minimum. Next in line is some sort of filter for the lungs. Just about everything you do in the shop makes dust which is not good for the lungs. If you tested the dust, it would make those lab rats feet go straight up in the air. Rough grinding gets a blade too hot to hold, so gloves are a necessity unless you want to spend half your time dipping the blade. ( We generally don't worry too much about getting the metal hot enough to damage it until after it has been heat treated.)
Shoe toe covers are nice if you do a lot of polishing on the buffer, and a leather apron lends a certain feeling of security. Shoe covers are also nice if you are wearing boots with a moccasin stitching around the top of the toe. Hot steel can burn the thread right out and then the tops curl up like something out of Little Abner. (I'm probably dating myself by mentioning him.)
Never let the fact that you wear some safety equipment make you any less careful with the machinery. President Reagan was wearing a bulletproof vest when he was shot.
Your wife will be a lot happier if you do your grinding while wearing a cotton shirt. The spray of sparks coming off the top wheel will melt right through modern, artificial fabrics. Cotton doesn't melt and stick to your skin either.
Welders' aprons are nice protection, but not quite wide enough across the chest to protect the shirt. They'll get to cotton too, but not nearly as quickly. It's not too difficult to make your own apron from a modestly priced slab of leather, cut wide enough to cover all of the chest. In a pinch, just slap a couple bands of duct tape over the area.
There are some new items available made out of the bullet proof vest material. We have not tested the material for spark resistance, but it sounds like a suit of this would be a great idea when you're buffing a blade.
There are a few sleepers in the area of shop safety, wood being one of the most innocent to the uninformed.
Many woods are treated with toxic chemicals to keep dangerous insects from being imported into countries. Preservatives and other compounds which aren't particularly good for folks are also used in processing woods. Many chemicals banned in the U.S. are used in foreign processing of woods which are eventually imported here.
Personal experience with a wood called roseberry illustrated that there are woods which are best left alone. The sawdust produced a galloping rash, and had gotten into some of the darndest and most embarrassing places.
Some woods will get you the first time you're exposed, others take time, until you've been sensitized by repeated exposure. Reactions vary from a mild itch, to a really nasty rash on the skin. Lung damage ranges from a few sneezes to serious tissue scarring.
A few of the woods dangerous to inhale are arbor vitae, dahoma, guarea, katon, sequoia redwood, sneezewood and stavewood.
Skin irritants include ayan, blackwood, cocobolo, cocus, mahogany, ramin, brazilian rosewood, east indian rosewood, ceylon satinwood, west indian satinwood, sucupira and teak.
Some of the woods that can get you either way are boxwood, western red cedar, ebony, greenheart, ipe, iroko, Africa mahogony, America mahagony, makore, mansonia, obeche, peroba rosa, and wenge. This is not a complete list. I personally find that zebra wood dust terribly irritating where most folks don't.
Wood dusts are most dangerous when the skin is moist, sweaty in warmer weather, and effects are more pronounced in workers over forty. Dust under the fingernails or a watch is always dangerous, and I'm not going to mention that a skin irritant
under a belt, or in your shorts could be memorable. Wood which hasn't been well dried is more likely to irritate than well aged lumber. Don't assume that wood dust disappears when you stop work. It can hang in the air for hours and lay back in hidden corners for months.
Wood dust burns easily, and is explosive in concentration. I've had sparks blow into the bandsaw dust that I forgot to clean up, and burn pretty fast. If you have compressed air, just try to blow it out the back door. ( Before it starts burning, not after.)
Wood that you collect yourself, from neighborhood sources or whatever, can bring undesirable, multiple legged wildlife along with it. Give that chunk of lemon tree that you dug out from behind the garage a good dose of insecticide before bringing it into the house.
Some woods have another irritating, but not necessarily harmful characteristic. These are called dyewoods because a significant part of their coloring material can be transferred from the wood dust. Virtually any wood which shows discoloration when moistened will also produce a stubborn stain on the woodworkers' skin, especially along the natural creases where moisture from sweat causes the staining material to transfer from dust to skin. Walnut, pernambuco, cocobolo and the rosewood family are really good for turning your palms various colors, ranging from rusty red to a deep purple. Wash fairly often when sanding, and relax, the stains will fade in a few days, right after you get back from the knife show.
Other dust producing materials that are really dangerous are buffalo horn, pearl and ivory. All of these accumulate in the lungs, and eventually reach the point where they can produce serious problems. With pearl, it's not only the dust, but also the fumes released when working it.
Working with the cutting edge up while grinding may seem dangerous but it's not. You do have to be very careful not to drop a blade on top of a moving belt, because it really flies, but don't worry about snagging the cutting edge and having it take off on you.
For a point of reference, the belt, at around 5,000 feet per minute, is moving at 60 miles per hour. You certainly wouldn't want to rub your knuckles on the highway at 60, would you?
Another tricky item is that bottom wheel on the grinder, normally made with an aluminum core. Just touch the tip of a blade to that aluminum and it digs in. The wheel is going around like crazy, right? The blade goes flying, fortunately, it usually hits the floor.
Belt snapping is another danger. They normally hold together very well, but when one lets go, they pop with a tremendous bang, scaring the living heck out of you. On occasion, one only half breaks, and the flapping end will whip you about half a dozen times before you can pull away. Belts do not just decide to come apart all by themselves. They have a knife maker there to help them break. Most belt failures happen when the nut at the grinder is trying to fold the belt w a a a a y too far over the side of the platen or wheel. If you get a buzzing vibration or loud hum when grinding heavy, you're punishing the belt joint severely. Some blades have harmonic spots where the weight of the metal makes it hum, no matter how careful you are. We found that the irritating vibration can be reduced a lot by simply working lower down on the platen.
This humming can create another problem when you're cutting out patterns. The vibration can actually crystallize the cast aluminum work rest arm, making it brittle and likely to snap after repeated use under those conditions.
With platen, flat grinding, the sharp edge of the steel platen will very often catch the very corner of the belts' joint and force the joint to fail, especially with finishing belts. Try cutting the platen about an eighth of an inch narrower than the belt and rounding the edges slightly. ( You can't do that with a Square Wheel brand.) Also, a freshly surfaced platen with coarse new grinding lines on it will wear through the belt joint in very little time. Polish a resurfaced platen down to 220 grit to reduce friction.
Slack belt grinding offers the opportunity for a lot of damage to ones' anatomy. You're working close to the belt edges with unpredictable movements on an irregular surface. To make it worse, the belt wanders all over the wheel, working from side to side as you exert pressure on it. We recommend using a piece of sharpening stick to kill the very edge of any belt used for slack work. It'll help prevent the slight lap marks that are so irritating but WILL NOT protect your fingers at all. Never extend the fingers beyond the work piece, past the edge of the belt, when slack belt finishing.
Most belts will accept quite a roll-over at the edge when cutting deep "inside curves", but a few brands give up the ghost if the edge so much as bends. Some brands shed at the edges, getting narrower all the time, others wear thin at the center of the joint. The best idea is to test different brands to see which fit your needs best. I could mention a few of the stinkers, but they'd sue me if I did it in print. We all eventually adopt our own unique style of grinding and settle on a belt that works with that style. The best recommendation that I can offer for new hands, is to try to wear out the center of a belt before using up the edges. A lot of inexperienced grinders use the outer corner of the belt to "chip" away at steel bulk. It'll cut steel off fast that way, but wears out the belt in a very short time, and breakage is much more likely to occur. Hold the blade tang with a vise grip pliers for more control.
You might never think of this one. My shop is sort of tight on space, so there's not a lot of room to move around. A helpful apprentice once cleaned up the floor around the grinders to make the shop neater. I banged my elbow into the running belt four times in less than two weeks. It was still bleeding through my shirts at the Guild show, embarrassing. The apprentice had accidentally moved the grinder about two inches farther out from the wall, and I had kept on turning around in the same spot I'd always used.
Never take a partially ground blade from someone at the grinder. Chances are that the end offered to you is very hot.
Lets talk about buffers. There are several important rules when buffing. Never work the buff into the cutting edge. Always have the buff running off the sharp edge! Never give the buff a chance to catch a point or guard projection. Above all, never work a buffer without all the body protection that you can possibly wear without the weight tipping you over. Never buff a blade which has already been sharpened. You are strong enough to stop the average buffer dead, barehanded, but don't try it while holding a sharp blade.
Cutoff saws are handy gadgets if one performs a few modifications on them, allowing one to cut sort of, freehand. This provides the opportunity for the saw to grab your work piece at the slightest movement. Put your cutoff saw up against the wall. That way, the flying pieces won't mess up the whole shop. The saw blade is turning up around eighty miles an hour. Wear goggles, gloves, apron and if possible, a lightweight suit of armor when using the cutoff saw.
Speaking of cutoff saws brings to mind a problem noted in out shop. The sparks are hot as all proverbial hell, especially with the carbon steels. They'll eat right into a wallboard, or set plywood afire when they concentrate a bit. Keep an eye on the darn thing when cutting more than one or two pieces of material.
Bandsaws are another fine opportunity to ruin parts of your anatomy, or even remove them completely. Treat that blade as though it were out to get you like an IRS auditor, and you'll be ok. Be sure not to push the work with any part of your body, that you want to keep attached to the other parts, in a direct line with the blade, and never reach across in front of or behind the blade. If the work jams, freezing the blade in the piece you're cutting, don't try to work it loose without turning the power off. Sometimes a screwdriver hammered into the back of the cut will work like a wedge, freeing the blade. Brushing dust or chips away from the cutting edge barehanded is just about like offering a fingertip to discard in the trash bin.
Cutting slices off of something either round or spherical with the bandsaw is very chancy. The round stock wants to roll forward into the blade, sometimes catching suddenly and pulling in a finger. I still have scars and a numb spot on the left index finger from this.
The drill press has a good reputation, but let a drill catch sometime when you're drilling the tang, and see what sort of mischief the blade performs while whizzing around with the drill bit. Put a good sized steel peg on the table where it will catch the whirling blade before it can make more than half a turn. Just run a half inch bolt up from underneath with a nut on top of the table to reduce the fear of the whirling blade.
You should try to punch center marks for drilling tang holes on the side of the blade which will allow you the hold the back, not the cutting edge, while drilling. Leave the drill press belt guards in place. You haven't had a real shock until the brim of your cap catches in the pulleys while you're leaning over to drill something. I'm not even going to mention what could happen with long hair.
How about the vise, innocent, right? Not quite. Most knife makers put protective jaw covers over the steel ones to keep from scarring their work. Those covers get nicked, and develop razor sharp sections that will rip you open. Always cut with a hacksaw on the side of your dominant hand, so you can easily stop the stroke when you break through and keep from ramming your knuckles into the work. Above all, never use the vise as an anvil. It's hard enough so that pieces could fly off. Never leave a blade in the vise and walk off. Even an unsharpened blade has a dangerous point.
If you smell electricity, turn the machine off immediately! What most of us smell and think of as electricity is ozone, and it is one major league, nasty thing to breath in, causing liver damage and a host of other medical problems. Inexpensive, brush type motors, like on a cutoff saw, are the worst offender, sparking like crazy when things get worn or out of adjustment.
Here's an odd one that caught me. Should the power go off, go around and turn everything in the shop off. That way, you won't have to come out and do it when the power comes back on at three am.
Another obvious, but often overlooked safety item with machinery is, you don't try to run something until you see if it rotates freely by hand. In other words, give it a test spin. If your hand won't turn it, the voltage certainly won't either. I use this with grinders and buffers, or even the cutoff saw, but won't trust the table saw for that sort of test. I'd rather burn up the table saw! Bandsaws may be spun whenever you change the blade, but I wouldn't try pulling the blade itself.
Never use a ventilated or open type motor in a knife shop. The air is full of abrasive dust that will wear out the electrical connectors and bearings in a very short time. The motor then self destructs, sometimes with fireworks. If you have to use an open motor, get one with a warranty. Then you'll get a free, new one when the darn thing wears itself to death on the grinding dust.
Most of the dust in the shop is iron. It collects on top of the electrical boxes. Some of it dribbles down in through the cracks. It is conductive, and eventually shorts the box out. Blow electrical boxes out regularly. If you want to have the process more exciting, don't turn the circuit off before starting to blow it out.
The dust that collects on top of a electrical box will sometimes dribble down across the front of it, making a lovely fireworks display when it shorts across the bare metal parts of the plug on the cord that's plugged in there. Personal experience taught me that it'll send a plug sailing right across the room with thirty amps of 220 behind it. It looked like an angry cobra. Kind of makes you shake your heard for awhile after that happens. I put tape across the top of all the boxes in the shop, leaving it hang over like an awning to prevent the problem.
The forge is a pit full of yellow hot coals, so what can be said other than, keep the parts of your body which are sensitive to heat away from the hot parts of the forge. ( There are no body parts which are not sensitive to heat.) Remember, any tools used around that fire are going to get darned hot too. Things will get hot from radiated infrared energy without being really close to the fire. Anything spilled out of the forge is hot, likely to melt right through the bottom of your sneakers. Try not to wear modern fabrics around the forge. They melt and stick to the skin where cotton just chars.
A forge used in a closed building will sometimes put out enough CO2 or CO to make a knife makers toes go straight up, just like those unfortunate lab rats. Do not use a forge heated by combustion indoors unless you have a couple of grage door sized openings, and they're open. Electrical heat treating ovens are not a hazard in this area, although they will take your eyebrows and nose hair right off when you stand over one while opening it.
Solvents are universally bad news. The fumes are not good for you, and some will even damage your skin, or actually penetrate through the skin. A couple of them, toluene and toluol, can cause hallucination. Maybe that's where guys get some of the ideas for fantasy knives. Must solvents also burn, with some of them having a very low ignition point. Using a few splashes of gasoline to de-grease your oil quenched blades can be very dangerous, if fact, explosive in a confined space. Evaporated gasoline is highly explosive. The best protection for evaporating solvents is to have a lot of air moving through your shop, diluting the concentration of dangerous fumes. Some are dangerous to contact the skin too. Most large markets now sell plastic or surgical gloves that give decent protection. We mention using solvents for various jobs in the catalog. We hope that you use them in the safest manner possible.
Your torch, either acetylene or propane, has to be very thoroughly checked to be sure it is not leaking after each use. The gasses are not good to breath, and I won't even mention the obvious possibility of explosion. A couple cubic feet of welding gas has all the explosive power of a hand grenade.
Another problem that I have with a torch, is forgetting that the cone of heat can extend for a foot or farther from the actual flame. I've set shelving afire, rags, and heated up tools on the bench that I picked up a minute later, while they were still very hot.
Soldering can put cadmium, fluorides, lead or zinc compounds into the air you're breathing. Solder with a fan pushing plenty of air past you.
And for those of us who pay no attention to what we read, pain is the ultimate teacher, as most small children discover before any other lesson. If some operation in your shop hurts while you're doing it, you are doing it wrong!
If you feel uncomfortable or uneasy while working at a particular task, think about it a bit. Your hands, or other parts of the body, have a memory of getting hurt when doing certain things. Actually, it's a lot more complicated than that, with your memory being triggered by certain motions of the body that led to pain, and so on. Anyway, it boils down to the fact that part of you is doing something that hurt at some time in the past, and your mind is trying to tell you that you should find another way to do the job. Pay attention ! Distractions will also get you hurt! There is no place for a tv in any shop. Even a radio can capture enough of your attention to be dangerous. People strolling in and out, calling you to the phone or just looking over your shoulder often have to be tolerated, but don't encourage them. Looking up from hand rubbing a sharp tanto usually leads to the rapid application of a Band-Aid. Similar inattention while grinding or buffing might be far more damaging.
Never tolerate any physical horseplay in the shop.
I've noted that a couple of short beers will mess up co-ordination and speed in working by as much as 30%, but then I have to admit that I haven't kept in practice from my Army days.
The following section on chemicals was furnished by an old friend and fellow knife maker, Sherman Williams.
Fumes from metals that are heated or mixed together in some forms can cause harm. Copper, lead, silver, cadmium, mercury, zinc are a few.
Use a mask or lots of ventilation. Start or continue using protective gloves when handling chemicals to keep them off your skin. They're cheap! If you need to use a chemical, make sure you know the precautions for working with it, and follow them. There other chemicals which, if you do not read the labels, will cause you trouble. You should check the potential hazards an item can cause before you use it. In the old days we handled items that were dangerous and didn't know it. Read the warnings and pay attention.
Incompatible materials. Certain combinations of chemicals are remarkably explosive, poisonous or hazardous in some other way, and these are generally avoided as a matter of course. There are many others that are perhaps equally dangerous but do not come to mind as readily. The following list, although not complete, may serve as a memory refresher. Stop and think for a moment before starting any work, especially if any hazardous chemical is involved.
DO NOT MIX
ALKALI METALS, such as calcium, potassium and sodium with water, carbon dioxide, carbon tetrachloride, and other chlorinated hydrocarbons.
ACETIC ACID with chromic acid, nitric acid, hydroxyl- containing compounds, ethylene glycal, perchloric acid, peroxides and permanganates.
ACETONE with concentrated sulphuric and nitric acid mixtures.
ACETYENE with copper (tubing), fluorine, bromine, chlorine, iodine, silver, mercury or their compounds.
AMMONIA, ANHYDROUS with mercury, halogens, calcium hypochlorite or hydrogen fluoride.
AMMONIUM NITRATE with acids, metal powers, flammable fluids, chlorates, nitrates, sulphur and finely divided organics or other combustibles.
ANILINE with nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide or other strong oxidizing agents.
BROMINE with ammonia, acetyene, butadiene, butane, hydrogen, sodium carbide, turpentine or finely divided metals.
CHLORATES with ammonia salts, acids, metal powers, sulfur, carbon, finely divided organics or other combustibles.
CHLORINE with ammonia, acetylene, butadiene, benzene, and other petroleum fractions, hydrogen, sodium carbides, turpentine, and finely divided powered metals.
CHROMIC ACID with acetic acid, naphthalene, campor, alcohol, glycerine, turpentine, and other flammable liquids.
CYANIDES with acids
HYDROGEN PEROXIDE with copper, chromium, iron, most metals or other combustible materials, aniline, and nitromethane.
HYDROGEN SULFIDE with nitric acid, oxidizing gases.
HYDROCARBONS generally, with fluorine, chlorine, bromine, chromic acid, or sodium peroxide.
IODINE with acetylene or ammonia.
MERCURY with acetylene, fulminic acid, hydrogen.
NITRIC ACID with acetic, chromic and hydrocyanic acids, aniline, carbon, hydrogen suflde, flammable fluids or gases and substances which readily nitrated.
OXYGEN with oils, grease, hydrogen, flammable liquid, solids and gases.
OXALIC ACID with silver or mercury.
PERCHLORIC ACID with acetic, anhydride, bismuth and its alloys, alcohol, paper, wood, and other organic materials.
PHOSPHOROUS PENTOXIDE with water.
POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE with glycerine, ethylene glycol, benzaldehyde, sulfuric acid.
SODIUM PEROXIDE with oxidizable substances, for instance: methanol, glacial acetic acid, acetic anhydride, benzaldehyde, carbon disulfide, glycerine, ethylene glycol, ethyl acetate, furfural, etc.
SULFURIC ACID with chlorates, perchlorates, permanganates and water.
WHEN MIXING ACIDS AND WATER, POUR ACIDS INTO WATER, DO NOT POUR WATER INTO ACIDS.
© Copyright 2005 Bob Engnath All rights reserved.